Human & Animal Health Laboratories Design BSL3
- BSL1 - agents not known to cause disease (no or low individual and community risk).
- BSL2 - agents that cause human or animal diseases with moderate individual or low community risk (e.g. blood borne
- BSL3 - indigenous/exotic agents associated with human disease and with potential for aerosol transmission - high individual risk (respiratory) low community risk)
- BSL4 - dangerous/exotic agents of life threatening nature – serious diseases readily transmitted.
Biosafety level requirement
|System/Equipment||Bio safety level|
|Isolation of Laboratory||NO||NO||YES||YES|
|Room sealable for decontamination||NO||NO||YES||YES|
|- Inward Air flow||NO||DESIRABLE||YES||YES|
|- Controlled ventilation system||NO||DESIRABLE||YES||YES|
|- HEPA filtered air exhaust||NO||NO||YES / NO||YES|
|Double door entry||NO||NO||YES||YES|
|Air lock with shower||NO||NO||NO||YES|
|Effluent Treatment||NO||NO||YES \ NO||YES|
|- On site||NO||DESIRABLE||YES||YES|
|- In Laboratory room||NO||NO||DESIRABLE||YES|
|- Double ended||NO||NO||DESIRABLE||YES|
|Bio logical safety cabinets||NO||DESIRABLE||YES||YES|
|Personal safety monitoring||NO||NO||DESIRABLE||YES|
Biosafety and Biosecurity laboratory design criteria
Laboratory location, Wipe clean surfaces, Heating ventilation and air conditioning ( HVAC) system, Directional air flow and
cascade negative pressure, Laboratory furniture and equipment, Laboratory rooms sizes and orientation, sample reception,
Double door autoclave and decontamination chamber for solid waste material, water supply and sewage system and Electrical
Essential building principles
- Primary containment barrier is the first barrier between agent and man (such as gloves, gowns, masks, biosafety
cabinets, respiratory protection etc.)
- Secondary containment barrier is the barrier between agents and environment (airtight rooms, air handling and
filtration, air locks, showers, laundry, sewage treatment, waste disposal, sterilisers, redundant services as well as
equipment and material niches.
- Tertiary containment barrier represents an additional organisational barrier with the physical operation with items
such as walls, fences, security, quarantine and animal exclusion zones.
During the programming phase it is essential to define how various elements are processed, including animals (clean and dirty),
people, wastes (carcasses, solid, other), samples from animals, laundry, feed and bedding (if used).
Issues related to ventilation in containment facilities include: directional airflow, airflow velocities, pressure differential between
adjacent spaces and air exchange rates.
Directional airflow is used to create zones of hazard by moving air from areas clear of hazardous aerosol contamination to areas
of higher potential for hazardous aerosol contamination. This provides for two functions:
- control of the hazardous aerosol minimises the possibility of inadvertent exposure outside of the laboratory
- knowledge of where the aerosol hazard exists, and the extent of the hazard allows personnel to follow
appropriate protocols if they are required to enter areas where aerosols may exist.
Technical details about pressure differentiation and back flow prevention.
- Pressure differentials in animal facilities are held at approximately 50 Pa lower pressure than the point of
personnel entry so that there is airflow into the room upon door opening.
- Backflow prevention for containment labs is necessary to prevent back siphoning of contaminated liquids and
air. Types of backflow solutions are dependent on the medium that is considered: water, air, gas, and steam.
The electrical systems of containment laboratories ensure that all of the systems cohesively work together to manage the three
essential criteria for biocontainment:
- Protection of the staff
- Protection of scientific programs
- Protection of the environment and adjacent communities
Electrical systems can be segregated into normal power systems, emergency power systems, uninterruptible power systems
(UPS), communication systems, data and information systems, lightning control systems, security systems, lighting systems,
equipment monitoring systems, automation control systems, life safety systems, harmonic control systems and telemetry
Proper identification is extremely important on all systems and equipment. The most expeditious method of handling this would
be to consult with the end user to enter their naming convention on the design and construction drawings. This is important
when systems are being integrated within existing facilities or where a computerised maintenance management system will be
- Heat treatment – 95 °C
- Chemical treatment
Redundancy is defined as having more than one system supporting an individual mechanical function. It would be wrong to
assume that each and every mechanical system or device needs to have redundancy. The primary areas for redundancy need
to focus on the three principles of bio-containment- environment protection, personnel protection and product (or scientific
outcome) protection. Therefore, during a design process the issue of redundancy needs to be well thought out.
- The safe handling of infectious wastes must be considered as part of the experimental plan.
- Urine and faecal wastes for animals infected with Level 3 and 4 agents must be decontaminated either by heat or
- Discarded surgery or necropsy tissues from infected animals are usually sterilised by autoclaving and carcasses by
rendering at high temperature, steam sterilisation, incineration or chemical decontamination such as alkaline hydrolysis.
All infectious wastes that cannot be decontaminated or autoclaved will immediately be placed in red infectious waste bags